- a school of PHILOSOPHY founded in the fourth century B.C. by Zeno of Citium which taught a PANTHEISTIC MONISM that identified GOD with the principle of UNIVERSAL REASON and advised everyone to accept their place in the scheme of life by doing their duty which was to follow the most RATIONAL path possible. The STOIC virtues were knowledge, reason, courage, justice, and self-discipline attained through the study of philosophy which leads to a virtuous life. Stoics taught the EXISTENCE of NATURAL law which is known to all people and the common humanity of mankind. Today the best known stoic is Marcus Aurelius whose works have been popularized by such POSITIVE THINKERS as Dale Carnegie.
Concise dictionary of Religion. 2012.
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