BIBLICAL CRITICISM


BIBLICAL CRITICISM
   a type of academic inquiry which arose in the nineteenth century through the application of eighteenth century RATIONALIST assumptions to the study of the BIBLE. It originated with ANTI-CHRISTIAN writers who sought to discredit the Biblical text by ridiculing on the basis of arguments derived from a Newtonian WORLDVIEW and DEISTIC ETHICS. More sympathetic scholars developed Biblical criticism to accommodate CHRISTIANITY to the Newtonian worldview by deleting the SUPERNATURAL from the Biblical text by explaining away references to PROPHECY and MIRACLES on literary and textual grounds. Eventually ORTHODOX scholars also accepted the validity of many methods created by the Biblical critics to answer such questions as
   "What are the most reliable and trustworthy texts of the HEBREW BIBLE and NEW TESTAMENT? What is the relationship between the various books? When and by whom were the texts written and for what purpose? What are the sources, if any, the authors used? What is the relationship of these sources to other oral and written materials of the time?" Biblical criticism today is understood as the application of general historical principles and RATIONALIST assumptions to the BIBLE and has evolved into various sub-disciplines such as redaction criticism, source criticism, form criticism, literary criticism, etc. CONSERVATIVE scholars often make a distinction between "higher criticism" which they see as essentially rationalist and "lower criticism" which is understood as a legitimate quest for textual purity.

Concise dictionary of Religion. 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Biblical Criticism —     Biblical Criticism (Textual)     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Biblical Criticism (Textual)     The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost. In this textual… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Biblical criticism — This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. For criticisms made against the Bible as a source of reliable information or ethical guidance, see Criticism of the Bible. The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed… …   Wikipedia

  • biblical criticism —       discipline that studies textual, compositional, and historical questions surrounding the Old and New Testaments. Biblical criticism lays the groundwork for meaningful interpretation of the Bible.       A brief treatment of biblical… …   Universalium

  • biblical criticism —    The work of scholars such a Erasmus on the biblical text and publication of more accurate Bible translations in the 16th century, coupled with Martin Luther s idea that the Bible s meaning was plain to any commonsense reader, led in the next… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • biblical criticism —    This term (from the Greek kritikos, meaning able to judge ) refers to two different approaches to studying the Bible: (1) lower criticism attempts to reconstruct the original biblical text (as none of the original manuscripts have survived);… …   Glossary of theological terms

  • biblical criticism — A term covering a variety of methods used since the Enlightenment in the early 18th cent. for studying the books of the Bible. See criticism, biblical …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • biblical criticism —  Библейская критика …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • Biblical Criticism (Higher) —     Biblical Criticism (Higher)     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Biblical Criticism (Higher)     Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Psychological Biblical Criticism — [http://www.aramaicnt.org/site/index.php?mode=article entry=95] is a re emerging field within biblical criticism that seeks to examine the psychological dimensions of scripture through the use of the behavioral sciences. The title itself involves …   Wikipedia

  • Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, Glasgow — The Professorship of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow was founded in 1861. The patron was formally the Crown (i.e. a Regius Professorship). Since 1935, the University Court, acting on the recommendation of a Board of… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.